X-ray crystallography allows to determine the structure of biological molecules with high resolution.
Cell cultures are at the core of a large part of basic and applied research. Characterizing the function of new genes and proteins would not be possible without resorting to cell-based in vitro assays at some point. Small- and large-scale protein production and generation of monoclonal antibodies are equally based on cell culture at least in some stages of their process. In addition, many varieties of transgenic animals and plants often start from cell cultures.
Electrophoresis is perhaps the technique most used in laboratories to sort complex mixtures of DNA fragments or proteins and classify them according to their size.
One way to study the evolution of a disease implies using an animal model that mimics human disease as closely as possible. In the case of those diseases caused by the failure of a particular cell type or tissue, researchers create animal models with genetic defects connected to that mistake. These are known as knockout mice.
By means of optogenetics, we can use light to control cell activation. The use of light as inducing agent makes cell response extremely rapid and selective
Flow cytometry is a powerful technique that allows multiparametric analysis in individual cells starting from heterogeneous populations.
Synthetic biology brings together engineers and biologists when it comes to the design and construction of biomolecular components, networks and metabolic pathways from scratch, using these constructs to reprogram organisms. This de novo engineering of genetic circuits, biological modules and synthetic pathways is beginning to solve critical issues in biology and is already being used in practical applications.
Circular permutation is a strategy naturally followed by evolution to create new proteins from already existing ones and which can be used in research to obtain proteins with enhanced functionalities or new features.
Nowadays, it is possible to synthesize recombinant proteins from animals and plants, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Recombinant proteins can be expressd in cultures from bacteria, yeast, fungi, mammal, plant and insect cells.Transgenic plants and animals have also been developed for the production of relevant proteins.
Proteins differ from traditional industrial chemicals in their synthesis system. The vast majority of these proteins with a specific action are recombinant, which means the protein synthesis machinery in a specific organism is used to produce them. We will analyze the main aspects to be considered in order to express a recombinant protein, by looking at the key points that determine the final outcome.